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Arrow Pushing Mechanism

In organic chemistry, the movement of electrons is shown using arrows. When drawing the mechanism for an organic reaction, it is important to understand how to correctly draw these arrows.

The movement of electrons is shown by the arrows. The electron pair from the oxygen on hydroxide is transferred to the carbon in the carbonyl group in carbon dioxide. The electron pair in the pi bond of the carbonyl group (C=O) moves onto the oxygen and becomes a lone pair on the oxygen atom.

What is Organic Chemistry? An Introduction

Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry specifically focused on the element carbon. Carbon is central to all living organisms and therefore organic chemistry is an essential part to life. Nonliving things such as drugs and dyes can also be made from carbon compounds.

Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. This means one atom of carbon can combine with up to four other atoms, since it can form up to 4 bonds. Since carbon can form bonds readily, organic compounds usually are large, with several atoms bonded together.

In organic chemistry, you will often see carbon bonded to hydrogen, H. Compounds which contain carbon bonded to hydrogen are referred to as hydrocarbons. Nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen also are often present in organic molecules. Different combinations of atoms in a compound make different functional groups. For example, if a hydrocarbon chain is bonded to OH, this makes this compound an alcohol (ROH). Many different functional groups exist and they react with one another in specific ways (

The most challenging part of organic chemistry is understanding the different reactions and their mechanisms. There are many different reactions and subtleties that one must remember when learning organic chemistry. I hope that you will find this blog helpful in your journey to mastery!